Software studies a lexicon by Matthew Fuller
lexicon: the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge
There are two reasons why the name of the book entitled to ‘Software studies’. Firstly, this book has a form of series of short studies such as speculative, expository, and critical texts on particular digital objects, languages, and logical structures. The second reason is that this book proposes that software can be seen as an object of study that means the book refers to some of the qualified software are supposed to possess and ideas by which to approach it. A recent type of Algorithm has a specialised field of research such as artificial life or high-tech science, neural network, genetic algorithm and back-propagation algorithm. That means the algorithms construction models are on simulate evolutionary processes or learning the neural networks system. The algorithm, which Turing understands as an effective process for solving a problem, is the package of disciplines and also touch on the machine to solve its problems. Thus, if the algorithms don’t exist in this contemporary world, computing could not develop and even worse, it was not created. In the field of linguistics, the existence of a pragmatic dimension to the language the fact that words do things has created enormous problems for attempts to formalise the structure of natural language Because pragmatics connects language to extrinsic factors, it becomes impossible to conceptualise a language as a self-sufficient system closed in on itself. To borrow an expression from Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, whose analysis of the place of pragmatics in language is part of the inspiration for this discussion, the problem with the purely formal conception of the algorithm as an abstract machine is not that it is abstract. It is that it is not abstract enough. That is to say, it is not capable of understanding the place of the algorithm in a process which traverses machine and human.